The United States has no Federal ministry of education or other centralized authority exercising single national control over postsecondary educational institutions in this country. The States assume varying degrees of control over education, but, in general, institutions of higher education are permitted to operate with considerable independence and autonomy. As a consequence, American educational institutions can vary widely in the character and quality of their programs.
In order to insure a basic level of quality, the practice of accreditation arose in the United States as a means of conducting nongovernmental, peer evaluation of educational institutions and programs. Private educational associations of regional or national scope have adopted criteria reflecting the qualities of a sound educational program and have developed procedures for evaluating institutions or programs to determine whether or not they are operating at basic levels of quality.
1. Certifying that an institution or program has met established
2. Assisting prospective students in identifying acceptable
3. Assisting institutions in determining the acceptability of
4. Helping to identify institutions and programs for the investment of public and private funds;
5. Protecting an institution against harmful internal and external
6. Creating goals for self-improvement of weaker programs and stimulating a general raising of standards among educational institutions;
7. Involving the faculty and staff comprehensively in institutional evaluation and planning;
8. Establishing criteria for professional certification and licensure and for upgrading courses offering such preparation; and
9. Providing one of several considerations used as a basis for determining eligibility for Federal assistance.
1. Standards: The accrediting agency, in collaboration with educational institutions, establishes standards.
2. Self-study: The institution or program seeking accreditation prepares an in-depth self-evaluation study that measures its performance against the standards established by the accrediting agency.
3. On-site Evaluation: A team selected by the accrediting agency visits the institution or program to determine first-hand if the applicant meets the established standards.
4. Publication: Upon being satisfied that the applicant meets its standards, the accrediting agency grants accreditation or preaccreditation status and lists the institution or program in an official publication with other similarly accredited or preaccredited institutions or programs.
5. Reevaluation: The accrediting agency periodically reevaluates each institution or program that it lists to ascertain whether continuation of its accredited or preaccredited status is warranted.
There are two basic types of educational accreditation, one identified as "institutional" and one referred to as "specialized" or "programmatic."
Institutional accreditation normally applies to an entire institution, indicating that each of an institution's parts is contributing to the achievement of the institution's objectives, although not necessarily all at the same level of quality. The various commissions of the regional accrediting associations, for example, perform institutional accreditation, as do many national accrediting agencies.
Specialized or programmatic accreditation normally applies to programs, departments, or schools that are parts of an institution. The accredited unit may be as large as a college or school within a university or as small as a curriculum within a discipline. Most of the specialized or programmatic accrediting agencies review units within an institution of higher education that is accredited by one of the regional accrediting commissions. However, certain accrediting agencies also accredit professional schools and other specialized or vocational institutions of higher education that are free-standing in their operations. Thus, a "specialized" or "programmatic" accrediting agency may also function in the capacity of an "institutional" accrediting agency. In addition, a number of specialized accrediting agencies accredit educational programs within non-educational settings, such as hospitals.
Accreditation does not provide automatic acceptance by an institution of credit earned at another institution, nor does it give assurance of acceptance of graduates by employers. Acceptance of students or graduates is always the prerogative of the receiving institution or employer. For these reasons, besides ascertaining the accredited status of a school or program, students should take additional measures to determine, prior to enrollment, whether or not their educational goals will be met through attendance at a particular institution. These measures should include inquiries to institutions to which transfer might be desired or to prospective employers and, if possible, personal inspection of the institution at which enrollment is contemplated.
The Council on Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA) was established in 1974 through the merger of the Federation of Regional Accrediting Commissions of Higher Education and the National Commission on Accrediting, whose membership was comprised of various specialized and national institutional accrediting agencies. It served as a nongovernmental organization whose purpose was to foster and facilitate the role of accrediting agencies in promoting and ensuring the quality and diversity of American postsecondary education. Through its Committee on Recognition, COPA recognized, coordinated, and periodically reviewed the work of its member accrediting agencies and the appropriateness of existing or proposed accrediting agencies and their activities, through its granting of recognition and performance of other related functions. After COPA voted to dissolve in December 1993, a new entity, the Commission on Recognition of Postsecondary Accreditation (CORPA) was established in January 1994 to carry out the evaluation and recognition of accrediting agencies that was previously carried out by COPA. CORPA was dissolved on April 1, 1997 after the Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) assumed the recognition function.